What is Polkadot (DOT)?

Polkadot is a next-generation blockchain platform that aims to enable a more decentralized and flexible internet by allowing different blockchains to interoperate and exchange data with each other in a secure and trustless manner.

Polkadot was founded by Gavin Wood, Robert Habermeier, and Peter Czaban with the goal of building a next-generation blockchain platform. Gavin Wood is a co-founder of Ethereum. He is the former Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of Ethereum and has extensive experience in the development of blockchain and distributed ledger technologies.

At its core, Polkadot is a decentralized network of heterogeneous blockchain shards that can work together to process transactions and store data. Each shard is independently operated by a group of validators, who are responsible for reaching a consensus on the state of the shard and adding new blocks to the chain. There are several key features that make Polkadot unique compared to other blockchain platforms:

Relay Chain

Polkadot’s relay chain serves as the central hub of the network and coordinates the activities of the different shards. The relay chain is responsible for assigning shards to validators, ensuring that the network is secure and decentralized, and facilitating the exchange of data between shards.


One of the main goals of Polkadot is to enable interoperability between different blockchains. This means that different blockchains can exchange data and interact with each other in a secure and trustless manner.

Heterogeneous Sharding

Unlike many other blockchain platforms, which are limited to a single shard or chain, Polkadot has a decentralized network of heterogeneous shards that can work together to process transactions and store data which allows for greater flexibility and scalability.


Polkadot’s parachains are specialized shards that can be customized to perform specific tasks or support particular applications. They can be used for a wide range of purposes, including supporting smart contracts, enabling decentralized finance (DeFi) applications, and enabling the creation of new decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs).

Parachains can be thought of as “plug-and-play” modules that can be easily added to the Polkadot network. This makes it easy to create specialized blockchains for specific purposes, without the need to build a new blockchain from scratch. Parachains can interoperate with each other and with the main Polkadot relay chain, enabling them to exchange data and interact with other blockchains on the network.


Polkadot has a strong focus on governance and community involvement, with token holders having the ability to vote on key decisions related to the direction and development of the platform. At the heart of the governance system is the Polkadot Council. The Council is responsible for making decisions related to the allocation of resources, the adoption of new technologies, and the overall direction of the platform.

Token holders on the Polkadot network have the ability to vote on key decisions related to the platform, including the selection of Council members. Votes are weighted based on the number of tokens that each holder has staked. All governance decisions are made on-chain, which means that they are recorded on the blockchain and can be easily audited and verified.


Polkadot uses a hybrid Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus algorithm to ensure the security of the network. Validators on the Polkadot network are responsible for reaching a consensus on the state of the network and adding new blocks to the chain. They do this by staking their tokens, which serve as a form of collateral and ensure that they have a vested interest in the security and integrity of the network. If a validator is found to be acting maliciously, they may lose their staked tokens as a penalty.

In addition to validators, the Polkadot network also uses collators, who are responsible for collecting and organizing the data needed to create new blocks. Collators are chosen by validators and are rewarded for their work with a portion of the transaction fees and block rewards.

The total supply of DOT is set at 10,000,000,000 tokens, with a fixed inflation rate of 5% per year. According to data from CoinMarketCap, as of December 16, 2022, there are approximately 10,174,374,984 Polkadot (DOT) tokens in circulation.

Polkadot is a highly ambitious and innovative platform that has the potential to revolutionize the way that blockchains work and enable the creation of a more decentralized and interoperable internet. Since its inception, Polkadot has grown into one of the most innovative blockchain projects in the industry, with a strong focus on interoperability, scalability, and governance.